Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences focuses on selected topics and problems in biomedicine, with special attention to their use in clinical medicine. In the area of neuroscience, research is focused on the study of ionic changes and diffusion parameters in the CNS during physiological and pathological conditions, non-synaptic transmission in CNS, ion channels and receptors, glial cell function, the role of glutamate receptors and calcium ions in neuronal and glial cell communication, the role of extracellular matrix in synaptic plasticity, CNS injury and regeneration, as well as the morphological and functional characteristics of nerve cells in the auditory system and their damage during pathological processes.
In the sphere of stem cell research, the Institute focuses on cell therapy and tissue engineering in the fields of ophthalmology, orthopedics and CNS damage, the differentiation and implantation of various stem cell types, as well as the production of tissue substitutes based on natural or synthetic hydrogels or biodegradable carriers from nonwoven nanofibers.
In the field of cell biology, the research focuses on the study of molecular mechanisms that are involved in carcinogenesis and the increased predisposition to cancer. Recent research has also been focused on identifying early indicators of malignant transformations that could be useful for the early diagnosis of cancer.
Other areas of research include the study of the principles of developmental biology, genotoxic and embryotoxic effects of xenobiotics and the mechanisms underlying the origin of birth defects, origin and course of toxic reactions at the cell and tissue level, histochemistry and pharmacology of enzymes as indicators of biochemical processes and the influence of drugs on the immune response during infectious diseases.
In the area of biotechnological innovations, nanoparticles and nanomaterials are studied for genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and their effects on living systems. We participate in the development of magnetic nanoparticles and their use in delivering drugs or labeling cells for non-invasive monitoring in the body of the recipient. The Institute also studies the effects of low-temperature plasma on biological systems, and participates in the development of new instruments for medical applications, as well as in the development of stem cell cultivation technology and cryopreservation for clinical use.
At present the Institute has 11 independent scientific departments.